10 economic principles of factory layout-smart manufacturing channel

2021-05-14 17:20  Times of view:

In the specific implementation process, we must analyze in detail the relationship between specific materials, products, equipment, areas and other objects, and determine their specific locations, so as to maximize the efficiency of on-site physical logistics, human flow, and information flow. For this we need Refer to the generalized layout economy principle.

As the planner and implementer of the layout, these basic principles must be memorized to guide the layout work.

01 Adjacent Principle

Departments or equipment with high flow of materials, work in progress, products, and personnel should be adjacent, as shown in the figure below.

02 Make full use of three-dimensional space

Generally, the height of the factory building is 4-6 meters, and the waste of space is very common. Generally, the stacking height of materials placed in a warehouse is 1.6 to 1.8 meters. For the placement of raw materials, parts and other materials, you can consider using shelves or adding mezzanine (attic) to make full use of the three-dimensional space. The principle of easy to put.

When shelves are used to place materials, it is generally only possible to configure an electric forklift with a high-lift function.

The multi-layer rack shown in the figure below can hold light pipes and bars, with a passage in the middle, the top layer is moved by a crane, and the rest is moved manually.

03 Uniform Principle

Organically unify 4M (human man, machine, material, and method of operation), and design the production layout on the basis of maintaining the balance of 4M, and reduce the impact of limitations (bottleneck) caused by not comprehensively considering the four elements of 4M Production, prolong the stagnation time.

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The principle of unification is the concept of unifying the layout, which is to activate the logistics of the production process, shorten the manufacturing cycle of products, and reduce costs. In the layout, the idea is more important than the technology, and the idea must go first. Therefore, the principle of unification is one of the most important principles of layout.

04 The shortest distance principle

Processing different products, the processing flow is also different. When the output and variety of products change, the processing flow will also change. At this time, the connection between upper and lower processes or projects should consider the shortest moving distance of people, machinery, and materials.

When the transportation distance is short, the time spent is the shortest, the transportation cost is the least, and the information between processes or projects can be fed back in time.

When the moving distance is too long, the handling time is long, the cost is high, and the information between the processes cannot be fed back in time, which will cause too many intermediate products, easy to produce defective products, and cause unnecessary waste of manufacturing costs.

05 The principle of smooth logistics

In order to reduce manufacturing costs, it is necessary to make the flow of people, machinery, and materials more reasonable and smoother. In order to make the production process unhindered, it is necessary to reduce the crossover, backflow or backflow of operations, and prohibit the occurrence of logistics stoppages. When designing the layout, it is necessary to make the logistics flow as smooth as water flows from a high place to a low place.

When it comes to smoothness, people often think that a long straight line arrangement is the most ideal and smoothest arrangement. But in reality, it is limited by the size and shape of the land area. At this time, the production line may not be arranged in a straight line. In addition, from a management point of view, we must try to make the layout more centralized and unified.

The principle only expresses the basic idea. In practice, you should carefully consider the size of the production batch, the change of the product, the limitation of the land area, etc., and compare and analyze the linear, L-shaped, U-shaped, S-shaped, star-shaped, ring-shaped, etc., Then make a comprehensive judgment to design the layout of the production line.

06 Inventory reduction principle

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Reduce inventory in the production process, because the establishment of work units can balance the flow of products between equipment.

Reduce the inventory of raw materials and finished products, because the reduction of work in the production process makes the movement of work cell materials more rapid.

Improve the utilization of equipment and machinery, because there are more reasonable arrangements and faster material flow.

Reduce the investment in equipment and machinery, because the effective use of machinery reduces the need for machinery and equipment, and also reduces installation costs.

07 Facilitate the flow of information

Communication is very important for any company, so the layout must contribute to the improvement of communication. This requires not only regulations on open spaces, half-height isolation rooms and private offices, but also regulations on distance.

Nowadays, the workshops of many multinational companies are clean rooms. Products produced in the clean rooms have high requirements for environmental cleanliness. 50% of the walls of the clean rooms are isolated by glass, which is suitable for lighting and visibility.

The communication between the clean room and the outside world is very important. At this time, we consider what communication methods should be used to convey various production information, as well as how to do dust prevention measures for people, materials, and equipment entering the clean room.

The way to communicate between the clean room and the outside world can be to install a walkie-talkie on the wall to transmit various information of production.

There must be an exit for people, materials, and equipment between the clean room and the outside world, and the outlet must be equipped with dust-proof facilities-a hair dryer to prevent dust from entering the clean room. The blower device blows from the inside to the outside to be effective. Ground to prevent dust from being brought into it by people, materials, and equipment.

Zunhua Baorui Titanium Equipment

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The exit is designed between the walls and there are doors on both sides. Only one door can be opened at a time. When the materials are sent to the clean room, the door on one side is opened, and the material is placed inside and the door is closed immediately, and the hair dryer automatically senses Immediately blow the material to remove dust. The door on the other side will not open until the blower stops before taking out the material and sending it to the work station on the production line for production. As shown below:

08 Safety and Satisfaction Principle

To enable operators to reduce fatigue and work easily, they must also consider safety requirements in terms of noise, dust, smoke, temperature, and illuminance, as well as space requirements around equipment and machinery.

Environmental safety issues should be considered when layout, such as:

① Will the working environment easily encounter obstacles?

② Will things fall or fall over?

③ Are the protective measures for the surrounding power supply safe?

④ Are there fire-fighting passages and fire-fighting measures?

⑤ Is the noise, dust, etc. exceeding the standard?

⑥ Are the temperature, humidity, and brightness appropriate?

Zunhua Baorui Titanium Equipment

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09 Principle of flexibility

It is necessary to consider the future increase or decrease in output, the increase in the size of multiple varieties, and the change of product models, etc., and include them in the plan in advance. Nevertheless, preparing redundant equipment from the beginning is unbearable in terms of production efficiency and capital efficiency.

Therefore, in order to flexibly adapt to future changes, it is necessary to ensure the expansion of equipment land, adopt a production layout that can be lengthened or shortened at any time, to flexibly respond to changes in production, and adopt layouts with different functions.

The mechanical equipment is changed from the original large-scale, professional, and not easy to move, to a small, versatile, easy-to-install mini-type device with wheels for easy movement.

10 environment and beauty

The layout often requires consideration of the height of windows, flower pots and partitions to facilitate air flow, reduce noise and provide private space, etc. The space around equipment and machinery must be neat and bright.

At the same time, in the overall planning of the layout, the design of the visiting channel and the visiting route should be considered, so that it can be convenient for others to visit and learn without affecting the production and staff operations.

Among these 10 layout principles, only a few can be modeled mathematically. Therefore, the layout and design of specific facilities is still an art that looks forward to industrialization.

Founded in 2015,Zunhua Baorui Titanium Equipment Co.,Ltd. is a manufacturer specializing in pvd vacuum ion coating equipment. The company’s products mainly include large plate coating machine, large tube collating machine, tool coating machine and LOW-E glass production line. Mr.Wang baijiang ,general manager of the company ,has been engaged in vacuum coating industry for more than 30 years. He continuously improve production technology, improve product performance and devote himself to provide customers with better product experience and higher production efficiency.

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